Orbital forming is a cold forming process using a peen tool held at a fixed angle to create a sweeping line of pressure around a rivet or tenon. This movement progressively collapses the rivet or tenon shank down onto the upper material with each rotation, permanently forming a rivet head in the process. Orbital forming creates a low profile, aesthetically appealing finish, and allows for joint articulation. The final rivet head form is determined by the type of peen.
This chart can help assist in determining what powerhead is required to form your mild steel rivet. More specifications can be found on our standard products page.
We recommend testing all applications in our solutions lab to determine the optimal force required.
Orbital riveting is a low force cold forming process. Using a peen tool positioned at a 3, 4, or 6 degree angle and mounted on a rotating spindle, it maintains a line of contact on the workpiece and gradually kneads the material to a desired form.
Orbital staking uses a sharper tool. With orbital staking, material is peeled away from the substrate to form over the part it is retaining at 360 degrees.
Orbital flaring, another type of orbital forming, utilizes an eyelet type peen tool to form outward a semi-tubular rivet tenon, eyelet, or workpiece to secure 2 or more components together.